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Antimony

Metalloidsolid
Symbol: Sb
Atomic number: 51
Atomic mass: 121.757
Group: Metal
CAS-number: 7440-36-0

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Physical data
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Physical data

Electronic dataThermal dataSteric data
Shells: 2, 8, 18, 18, 5
Orbitals: [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3
Electronegativity: 1.9, 1.8
1. Ionization potential: 8.64 eV
2. Ionization potential: 16.53 eV
3. Ionization potential: 25.30 eV
Oxidation states: 5, 3, -3
Electrical conductivity: 0.0288 10^6
Melting point: 630.74 °C
Boiling point: 1587 °C
Specific heat: 0.21 J/gK
Heat of fusion: 19.870 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 77.140 kJ/mol
Thermal conductivity: 0.243 W/cmK
Atomic radius: 1.53 Å
Ionic radius: 0.76 Å (+3)
Covalent radius: 1.40 Å
Atomic volume: 18.23 cm³/mol
Density (293 K): 6.684 g/cm³
Crystal structure: rhombohedral
rhombohedral

Isotopes

NuclideAbundance [%]MassSpinHalflifeDecay modeDecay tree
117Sb 0 117 5/2 2.80h EC, β+ View
119Sb 0 119 5/2 38.1h EC View
120Sb 0 120 1 15.89m EC, β+ View
121Sb 57.25 120.904 5/2 -- --
122Sb 0 122 2 2.70d β-, β+, EC View
123Sb 42.75 122.904 7/2 -- --
124Sb 0 124 3 60.20d β- View
125Sb 0 125 7/2 2.758y β-, β- View
126Sb 0 126 8 12.4d β- View
126Sbm 0 126 5 19.0m β-, IT View
127Sb 0 127 7/2 3.84d β-, β- View
129Sb 0 129 7/2 4.40h β-, β- View

Other info

Name origin:Greek: anti and monos (not alone); symbol from mineral stibnite.
Description:Hard, brittle, silvery-white semimetal.
Discovered by:Known to the ancients
Year:--
Place:Unknown
Sources:Found in stibnite (Sb2S3) and in valentinite (Sb2O3).
Use(s):It is alloyed with other metals to increase their hardness. Also in the manufacture of a few special types of semiconductor devices. Also in plastics and chemicals. A few kinds of over-the-counter cold and flu remedies use antimony compounds.