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Niobium

Metalsolid
Symbol: Nb
Atomic number: 41
Atomic mass: 92.90638
Group: Transition Metal
CAS-number: 7440-03-1

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Physical data
Isotopes
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Physical data

Electronic dataThermal dataSteric data
Shells: 2, 8, 18, 12, 1
Orbitals: [Kr] 4d4 5s1
Electronegativity: 1.6, 1.2
1. Ionization potential: 6.7589 eV
2. Ionization potential: 14.32 eV
3. Ionization potential: 25.04 eV
Oxidation states: 5, 3
Electrical conductivity: 0.0693 10^6
Melting point: 2468 °C ±10
Boiling point: 4742 °C
Specific heat: 0.26 J/gK
Heat of fusion: 26.40 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 682.0 kJ/mol
Thermal conductivity: 0.537 W/cmK
Atomic radius: 2.08 Å
Ionic radius: 0.64 Å (+5)
Covalent radius: 1.34 Å
Atomic volume: 10.87 cm³/mol
Density (293 K): 8.57 g/cm³
Crystal structure: cubic body centered
cubic body centered

Isotopes

NuclideAbundance [%]MassSpinHalflifeDecay modeDecay tree
90Nb 0 90 8 14.6h β+, EC View
91Nb 0 91 9/2 7E02y EC, β+ View
91Nbm 0 91 1/2 62d IT, EC View
92Nb 0 92 9/2 3.6E07y EC View
92Nbm 0 92 2 10.13d EC, β+ View
93Nb 100 92.9064 9/2 -- --
93Nbm 0 93 1/2 16.1y IT View
94Nb 0 93.9057 6 2.0E04y β- View
94Nbm 0 94 3 6.26m IT, β- View
95Nb 0 94.9065 9/2 34.97d β- View
95Nbm 0 95 1/2 3.61d IT, β- View
96Nb 0 96 6 23.4h β- View
97Nb 0 97 9/2 1.23h β- View
97Nbm 0 97 1/2 58.1s IT View

Other info

Name origin:Named after Niobe, daughter of the mythical Greek king Tantalus
Description:Shiny white, soft, ductile metal.
Discovered by:Charles Hatchet
Year:1801
Place:England
Sources:Occurs in a mineral named columbite. Formerly known as colombium (Cb). It is used in stainless steel alloys for nuclear reactors, jets and missiles.
Use(s):Used as an alloy with iron and nickel. It can be used in nuclear reactors and it is known to be superconductive when alloyed with tin, aluminum or zirconium.