Symbol: V
Atomic number: 23
Atomic mass: 50.9415
Group: Transition Metal
CAS-number: 7440-62-2

Physical data
Other info
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Physical data

Electronic data

Shells: 2, 8, 11, 2
Orbitals: [Ar] 3d3 4s2
Electronegativity: 1.6, 1.4
1. Ionization potential: 6.7463 eV
2. Ionization potential: 14.65 eV
3. Ionization potential: 29.31 eV
Oxidation states: 5, 4, 3, 2, 0
Electrical conductivity: 0.0489 10^6

Thermal data

Melting point: 1890 °C ±10
Boiling point: 3407 °C
Specific heat: 0.49 J/gK
Heat of fusion: 20.90 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 0.452 kJ/mol
Thermal conductivity: 0.307 W/cmK

Steric data

Atomic radius: 1.92 Å
Ionic radius: 0.54 Å (+5)
Covalent radius: 1.22 Å
Atomic volume: 8.78 cm³/mol
Density (293 K): 5.8 g/cm³
Crystal structure: cubic body centered
cubic body centered


NuclideAbundance [%]MassSpinHalflifeDecay modeDecay tree
48V 0 47.952 4 15.98d β+, EC View
49V 0 48.948 7/2 337d EC View
50V 0.25 49.9472 6 1.4E17y EC, β- View
51V 99.75 50.944 7/2 -- --
52V 0 52 3 3.76m β- View

Other info

Name origin:Named after the scandinavian goddess, Vanadis
Description:Soft, ductile, silvery-white metal. Resistant to corrosion by moisture, air and most acids and alkalis at room temperature.
Discovered by:Nils Sefström
Sources:Found in the minerals patronite (VS4), vanadinite [Pb5(VO4)3Cl], and carnotite [K2(UO2)2(VO4)2.3H2O]. Pure metal produced by heating with C and Cl to produce VCl3 which is heated with Mg in Ar atmosphere.
Use(s):It is mixed with other metals to make very strong and durable alloys. Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is used as a catalyst, dye and color-fixer.