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Germanium

Metalloidsolid
Symbol: Ge
Atomic number: 32
Atomic mass: 72.61
Group: Metal
CAS-number: 7440-56-4

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Physical data

Electronic dataThermal dataSteric data
Shells: 2, 8, 18, 4
Orbitals: [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Electronegativity: 1.8, 2.0
1. Ionization potential: 7.900 eV
2. Ionization potential: 15.934 eV
3. Ionization potential: 34.22 eV
Oxidation states: 4
Electrical conductivity: 1.45e-8 10^6
Melting point: 937.4 °C
Boiling point: 2830 °C
Specific heat: 0.32 J/gK
Heat of fusion: 36.940 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 330.90 kJ/mol
Thermal conductivity: 0.599 W/cmK
Atomic radius: 1.52 Å
Ionic radius: 0.53 Å (+4)
Covalent radius: 1.22 Å
Atomic volume: 13.6 cm³/mol
Density (293 K): 5.323 g/cm³
Crystal structure: cubic face centered
cubic face centered

Isotopes

NuclideAbundance [%]MassSpinHalflifeDecay modeDecay tree
68Ge 0 68 0 270.8d EC View
69Ge 0 69 5/2 1.63d EC, β+ View
70Ge 20.51 69.9242 0 -- --
71Ge 0 70.925 1/2 11.4d EC View
72Ge 27.43 71.9221 0 -- --
73Ge 7.76 72.9235 9/2 -- --
74Ge 36.54 73.9212 0 -- --
76Ge 7.76 75.9214 0 -- --
77Ge 0 77 7/2 11.3h β- View

Other info

Name origin:Latin: Germania (Germany)
Description:Grayish-white metal.
Discovered by:Clemens Winkler
Year:1886
Place:Germany
Sources:Obtained from refining copper, zinc and lead.
Use(s):Widely used in semiconductors. It is a good semiconductor when combined with tiny amounts of phosphorus, arsenic, gallium, and antimony.