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Chromium

Metalsolid
Symbol: Cr
Atomic number: 24
Atomic mass: 51.9961
Group: Transition Metal
CAS-number: 7440-47-3

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Physical data

Electronic dataThermal dataSteric data
Shells: 2, 8, 13, 1
Orbitals: [Ar] 3d5 4s1
Electronegativity: 1.6, 1.6
1. Ionization potential: 6.7666 eV
2. Ionization potential: 16.50 eV
3. Ionization potential: 30.96 eV
Oxidation states: 6, 3, 2, 0
Electrical conductivity: 0.0774 10^6
Melting point: 1857 °C
Boiling point: 2672 °C
Specific heat: 0.45 J/gK
Heat of fusion: 16.90 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 344.30 kJ/mol
Thermal conductivity: 0.937 W/cmK
Atomic radius: 1.85 Å
Ionic radius: 0.62 Å (+3)
Covalent radius: 1.18 Å
Atomic volume: 7.23 cm³/mol
Density (293 K): 7.19 g/cm³
Crystal structure: cubic body centered
cubic body centered

Isotopes

NuclideAbundance [%]MassSpinHalflifeDecay modeDecay tree
49Cr 0 49 5/2 42.3m β+ View
50Cr 4.31 49.946 0 -- --
51Cr 0 50.945 7/2 27.70d EC View
52Cr 83.76 51.9405 0 -- --
53Cr 9.55 52.9407 3/2 -- --
54Cr 2.38 53.9389 0 -- --

Other info

Name origin:Greek: chrôma (color)
Description:Very hard, crystalline, steel-gray metal. The pure metal has a blue-white color. It is hard, brittle and corrosion-resistant at normal temperatures.
Discovered by:Louis Vauquelin
Year:1797
Place:France
Sources:Chromite [Fe,Mg(CrO4)] is its most important mineral. Produced commercially by heating its ore in the presence of silicon or aluminium.
Use(s):Used to make stainless steel. It gives the color to rubies and emeralds. Iron-nickel-chromium alloys in various percentages yield an incredible variety of the most important metals in modern technology.