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Mercury

Metalfluid
Symbol: Hg
Atomic number: 80
Atomic mass: 200.59
Group: Metal
CAS-number: 7439-97-6

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Physical data
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Physical data

Electronic dataThermal dataSteric data
Shells: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2
Orbitals: [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2
Electronegativity: 1.9, 1.4
1. Ionization potential: 10.4375 eV
2. Ionization potential: 18.759 eV
3. Ionization potential: 34.202 eV
Oxidation states: 2, 1
Electrical conductivity: 0.0104 10^6
Melting point: -38.87 °C
Boiling point: 356.58 °C
Specific heat: 0.139 J/gK
Heat of fusion: 2.295 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 59.229 kJ/mol
Thermal conductivity: 0.0834 W/cmK
Atomic radius: 1.76 Å
Ionic radius: 1.02 Å (+2)
Covalent radius: 1.49 Å
Atomic volume: 14.82 cm³/mol
Density (293 K): 13.546 g/cm³
Crystal structure: rhombohedral
rhombohedral

Isotopes

NuclideAbundance [%]MassSpinHalflifeDecay modeDecay tree
194Hg 0 194 0 520y EC View
196Hg 0.146 195.966 0 -- --
197Hg 0 197 1/2 2.672d EC View
197Hgm 0 197 15/2 23.8h IT, EC View
198Hg 10.02 197.967 0 -- --
199Hg 16.4 198.968 1/2 -- --
200Hg 23.13 199.968 0 -- --
201Hg 13.22 200.97 3/2 -- --
202Hg 29.8 201.971 0 -- --
203Hg 0 203 5/2 46.61d β- View
204Hg 6.85 202.974 0 -- --
206Hg 0 206 0 8.2m β- View

Other info

Name origin:From the Roman god Mercury; symbol from Latin: hydrargyrus (liquid silver).
Description:Heavy, silver-white metal, liquid at ordinary temperatures.
Discovered by:Known to the ancients
Year:--
Place:Unknown
Sources:Virtually all mercury comes from cinnabar or mercury sulfide (HgS). Some sources of red cinnabar are so rich in mercury that droplets of elemental mercury can be found in random samples.
Use(s):Used in thermometers, barometers, and batteries. Also used in electrical switches and mercury-vapor lighting products.