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Gold

Metalsolid
Symbol: Au
Atomic number: 79
Atomic mass: 196.96654
Group: Transition Metal
CAS-number: 7440-57-5

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Physical data
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Physical data

Electronic dataThermal dataSteric data
Shells: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
Orbitals: [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
Electronegativity: 2.4, 1.4
1. Ionization potential: 9.2257 eV
2. Ionization potential: 20.521 eV
3. Ionization potential: -- eV
Oxidation states: 3, 1
Electrical conductivity: 0.452 10^6
Melting point: 1064.43 °C
Boiling point: 2808 °C
Specific heat: 0.128 J/gK
Heat of fusion: 12.550 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 334.40 kJ/mol
Thermal conductivity: 3.17 W/cmK
Atomic radius: 1.79 Å
Ionic radius: 0.85 Å (+3)
Covalent radius: 1.34 Å
Atomic volume: 10.2 cm³/mol
Density (293 K): 19.32 g/cm³
Crystal structure: cubic face centered
cubic face centered

Isotopes

NuclideAbundance [%]MassSpinHalflifeDecay modeDecay tree
194Au 0 194 1 1.64d EC, β+ View
195Au 0 195 3/2 186.12d EC View
195Aum 0 195 11/2 30.5s IT View
196Au 0 196 2 6.18d EC, β-, β+ View
197Au 100 196.967 3/2 -- --
197Aum 0 197 11 7.8s IT View
198Au 0 198 2 2.694d β- View
199Au 0 199 3/2 3.14d β- View

Other info

Name origin:Anglo-Saxon: geolo (yellow); symbol from Latin: aurum (shining dawn).
Description:Soft, malleable, bright yellow metal.
Discovered by:Known to the ancients
Year:--
Place:Unknown
Sources:Found in veins in the earth crust, with cooper ore and native.
Use(s):Very malleable. Used in electronics, jewelry and coins. It is a good reflector of infrared radiation, so a thin film of gold is applied to the glass of skyscrapers to reduce internal heating from sunlight.