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Hafnium

Metalsolid
Symbol: Hf
Atomic number: 72
Atomic mass: 178.49
Group: Transition Metal
CAS-number: 7440-58-6

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Physical data
Isotopes
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Physical data

Electronic dataThermal dataSteric data
Shells: 2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2
Orbitals: [Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
Electronegativity: 1.3, 1.2
1. Ionization potential: 6.8251 eV
2. Ionization potential: 14.925 eV
3. Ionization potential: 23.32 eV
Oxidation states: 4
Electrical conductivity: 0.0312 10^6
Melting point: 2227 °C
Boiling point: 4602 °C
Specific heat: 0.14 J/gK
Heat of fusion: 24.060 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 575.0 kJ/mol
Thermal conductivity: 0.230 W/cmK
Atomic radius: 2.16 Å
Ionic radius: 0.83 Å (+4)
Covalent radius: 1.44 Å
Atomic volume: 13.6 cm³/mol
Density (293 K): 13.2 g/cm³
Crystal structure: hexagonal
hexagonal

Isotopes

NuclideAbundance [%]MassSpinHalflifeDecay modeDecay tree
172Hf 0 172 0 1.87y EC View
174Hf 0.18 173.94 0 2.0E15y α View
175Hf 0 175 5/2 70d EC View
176Hf 5.2 175.941 0 -- --
177Hf 18.5 176.943 7/2 -- --
178Hf 27.14 177.944 0 -- --
179Hf 13.75 178.946 9/2 -- --
180Hf 35.24 179.947 0 -- --
181Hf 0 181 1/2 42.4d β- View
182Hf 0 182 0 9E06y β- View

Other info

Name origin:From Hafnia, the Latin name of Copenhagen.
Description:Silvery, ductile metal.
Discovered by:Dirk Coster, Georg von Hevesy
Year:1923
Place:Denmark
Sources:Obtained from mineral zircon or baddeleyite.
Use(s):Used in reactor control rods because of its ability to absorb neutrons.