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Erbium

Metalsolid
Symbol: Er
Atomic number: 68
Atomic mass: 167.26
Group: Lanthanide
CAS-number: 7440-52-0

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Physical data

Electronic dataThermal dataSteric data
Shells: 2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2
Orbitals: [Xe] 4f12 6s2
Electronegativity: --, 1.1
1. Ionization potential: 6.1078 eV
2. Ionization potential: 11.929 eV
3. Ionization potential: 22.739 eV
Oxidation states: 3
Electrical conductivity: 0.0117 10^6
Melting point: 1529 °C
Boiling point: 2868 °C
Specific heat: 0.17 J/gK
Heat of fusion: 19.90 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 261.0 kJ/mol
Thermal conductivity: 0.143 W/cmK
Atomic radius: 2.45 Å
Ionic radius: 1.00 Å (+3)
Covalent radius: 1.57 Å
Atomic volume: 18.4 cm³/mol
Density (293 K): 9.05 g/cm³
Crystal structure: hexagonal
hexagonal

Isotopes

NuclideAbundance [%]MassSpinHalflifeDecay modeDecay tree
162Er 0.136 161.929 0 -- --
164Er 1.56 163.929 0 -- --
166Er 33.41 165.93 0 -- --
167Er 22.94 166.932 7/2 -- --
168Er 27.07 167.932 0 -- --
169Er 0 169 1/2 9.40d β- View
170Er 14.8 169.936 0 -- --
171Er 0 171 5/2 7.52h β- View
172Er 0 172 0 2.05d β- View

Other info

Name origin:Named after the Swedish town, Ytterby.
Description:Soft, malleable, silvery metal.
Discovered by:Carl Mosander
Year:1843
Place:Sweden
Sources:Found with other heavier rare earths in xenotime and euxerite.
Use(s):Erbium oxide is used in ceramics to obtain a pink glaze. Also a few uses in the nuclear industry and as an alloying agent for other exotic metals. For example, it increases the malleability of vanadium.