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Gadolinium

Metalsolid
Symbol: Gd
Atomic number: 64
Atomic mass: 157.25
Group: Lanthanide
CAS-number: 7440-54-2

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Physical data

Electronic dataThermal dataSteric data
Shells: 2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Orbitals: [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Electronegativity: --, 1.1
1. Ionization potential: 6.1500 eV
2. Ionization potential: 12.095 eV
3. Ionization potential: 20.635 eV
Oxidation states: 3
Electrical conductivity: 0.00736 10^6
Melting point: 1313 °C
Boiling point: 3273 °C
Specific heat: 0.23 J/gK
Heat of fusion: 10.050 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 359.40 kJ/mol
Thermal conductivity: 0.106 W/cmK
Atomic radius: 2.54 Å
Ionic radius: 1.05 Å (+3)
Covalent radius: 1.61 Å
Atomic volume: 19.9 cm³/mol
Density (293 K): 7.895 g/cm³
Crystal structure: hexagonal
hexagonal

Isotopes

NuclideAbundance [%]MassSpinHalflifeDecay modeDecay tree
148Gd 0 147.918 0 75y α View
150Gd 0 149.919 0 1.8E06y α View
152Gd 0.2 151.92 0 1.1E14y α View
153Gd 0 153 3/2 241.6d EC View
154Gd 2.15 153.921 0 -- --
155Gd 14.73 154.923 3/2 -- --
156Gd 20.47 155.922 0 -- --
157Gd 15.68 156.934 3/2 -- --
158Gd 24.87 157.924 0 -- --
159Gd 0 159 1/2 18.6h β- View
160Gd 21.9 159.927 0 -- --
162Gd 0 162 0 8.4m β- View

Other info

Name origin:Named after the mineral gadolinite.
Description:Soft, ductile, silvery-white metal.
Discovered by:Jean de Marignac
Year:1880
Place:Switzerland
Sources:Found with other rare earths in gadolinite and monazite sand.
Use(s):Used in steel alloying agents and the manufacture of electronic components.