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Cadmium

Metalsolid
Symbol: Cd
Atomic number: 48
Atomic mass: 112.411
Group: Metal
CAS-number: 7440-43-9

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Physical data

Electronic dataThermal dataSteric data
Shells: 2, 8, 18, 18, 2
Orbitals: [Kr] 4d10 5s2
Electronegativity: 1.9, 1.5
1. Ionization potential: 8.9937 eV
2. Ionization potential: 16.908 eV
3. Ionization potential: 37.48 eV
Oxidation states: 2
Electrical conductivity: 0.138 10^6
Melting point: 320.9 °C
Boiling point: 765 °C
Specific heat: 0.23 J/gK
Heat of fusion: 6.192 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 99.570 kJ/mol
Thermal conductivity: 0.968 W/cmK
Atomic radius: 1.71 Å
Ionic radius: 0.95 Å (+2)
Covalent radius: 1.48 Å
Atomic volume: 13.1 cm³/mol
Density (293 K): 8.65 g/cm³
Crystal structure: hexagonal
hexagonal

Isotopes

NuclideAbundance [%]MassSpinHalflifeDecay modeDecay tree
106Cd 1.22 105.906 0 -- --
108Cd 0.88 107.904 0 -- --
109Cd 0 109 5/2 462d EC View
110Cd 12.39 109.903 0 -- --
111Cd 12.75 110.904 1/2 -- --
111Cdm 0 111 11/2 48.5m IT View
112Cd 24.07 111.903 0 -- --
113Cd 12.26 112.904 1/2 9E15y β- View
113Cdm 0 113 11/2 14.1y β-, IT View
114Cd 28.86 113.903 0 -- --
115Cd 0 115 1/2 2.228d β- View
115Cdm 0 115 11/2 44.6d β- View
116Cd 7.58 115.905 0 -- --
117Cd 0 117 1/2 2.49h β-, β- View
117Cdm 0 117 11/2 3.4h β-, β- View

Other info

Name origin:Greek: kadmeia (ancient name for calamine (zinc oxide)).
Description:Soft, malleable, blue-white metal.
Discovered by:Fredrich Stromeyer
Year:1817
Place:Germany
Sources:Obtained as a by product of zinc refining.
Use(s):Used in nickel-cadmium batteries. Also in electroplating steel and in the manufacture of bearings. Its compounds are found in paint pigments and a wide variety of intense colors. Boiling cadmium gives off a weird, yellow-colored vapor that is poisonous.