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Ruthenium

Metalsolid
Symbol: Ru
Atomic number: 44
Atomic mass: 101.07
Group: Transition Metal
CAS-number: 7440-18-8

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Physical data
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Physical data

Electronic dataThermal dataSteric data
Shells: 2, 8, 18, 15, 1
Orbitals: [Kr] 4d7 5s1
Electronegativity: 2.2, 1.4
1. Ionization potential: 7.3605 eV
2. Ionization potential: 16.76 eV
3. Ionization potential: 28.47 eV
Oxidation states: 8, 6, 4, 3, 2, 0, -2
Electrical conductivity: 0.137 10^6
Melting point: 2334 °C
Boiling point: 4150 °C
Specific heat: 0.238 J/gK
Heat of fusion: 24.0 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 595.0 kJ/mol
Thermal conductivity: 1.17 W/cmK
Atomic radius: 1.89 Å
Ionic radius: 0.62 Å (+4)
Covalent radius: 1.25 Å
Atomic volume: 8.3 cm³/mol
Density (293 K): 12.2 g/cm³
Crystal structure: hexagonal
hexagonal

Isotopes

NuclideAbundance [%]MassSpinHalflifeDecay modeDecay tree
96Ru 5.51 95.9076 0 -- --
97Ru 0 97 5/2 2.89d EC, EC View
98Ru 1.87 97.9053 0 -- --
99Ru 12.72 98.9059 5/2 -- --
100Ru 12.62 99.9042 0 -- --
101Ru 17.07 101.906 5/2 -- --
102Ru 31.61 101.904 0 -- --
103Ru 0 103 3/2 39.27d β-, β- View
104Ru 58.58 103.905 0 -- --
105Ru 0 105 3/2 4.44h β-, β- View
106Ru 0 106 0 1.020y β- View

Other info

Name origin:Latin: ruthenia (Russia)
Description:Rare, extremely brittle, silver-gray metal.
Discovered by:Karl Klaus
Year:1844
Place:Russia
Sources:Found in pentlandite and pyroxenite.
Use(s):Used to harden platinum and palladium. Aircraft magnetos use platinum alloy with 10% ruthenium.