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Bromine

Non-Metalfluid
Symbol: Br
Atomic number: 35
Atomic mass: 79.904
Group: Halogen
CAS-number: 7726-95-6

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Physical data
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Physical data

Electronic dataThermal dataSteric data
Shells: 2, 8, 18, 7
Orbitals: [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5
Electronegativity: 2.8, 2.7
1. Ionization potential: 11.8138 eV
2. Ionization potential: 21.8 eV
3. Ionization potential: 36.0 eV
Oxidation states: 7, 5, 3, 1, -1
Electrical conductivity: --
Melting point: -7.2 °C
Boiling point: 58.78 °C
Specific heat: 0.473 J/gK
Heat of fusion: 5.286 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 15.438 kJ/mol
Thermal conductivity: 0.00122 W/cmK
Atomic radius: 1.12 Å
Ionic radius: 1.96 Å (-1)
Covalent radius: 1.14 Å
Atomic volume: 25.6 cm³/mol
Density (293 K): 3.119 g/cm³
Crystal structure: orthorhombic
orthorhombic

Isotopes

NuclideAbundance [%]MassSpinHalflifeDecay modeDecay tree
76Br 0 76 1 16.0h β+, EC View
77Br 0 76.921 3/2 2.376d EC, β+ View
79Br 50.54 78.9183 3/2 -- --
80Br 0 80 1 17.66m β-, EC, β+ View
80Brm 0 80 9/2 4.42h IT View
81Br 49.46 80.9163 3/2 -- --
82Br 0 81.917 5 1.471d β- View
83Br 0 83 3/2 2.40h β-, β- View
84Br 0 84 2 31.8m β- View
85Br 0 85 3/2 2.87m β-, β- View

Other info

Name origin:Greek: brômos (stench)
Description:Redish-brown liquid.
Discovered by:Antoine J. Balard
Year:1826
Place:France
Sources:Occurs in compounds in sea water.
Use(s):It was once used in large quantities to make a compound that removed lead compound build up in engines burning leaded gasoline. Now it is primarily used in dyes, disinfectants, and photographic chemicals.