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Calcium

Metalsolid
Symbol: Ca
Atomic number: 20
Atomic mass: 40.078
Group: Alkali Earth Metal
CAS-number: 7440-70-2

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Physical data
Isotopes
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Physical data

Electronic dataThermal dataSteric data
Shells: 2, 8, 8, 2
Orbitals: [Ar] 4s2
Electronegativity: 1.0, 1.0
1. Ionization potential: 6.1132 eV
2. Ionization potential: 11.871 eV
3. Ionization potential: 50.908 eV
Oxidation states: 2
Electrical conductivity: 0.298 10^6
Melting point: 839 °C
Boiling point: 1484 °C
Specific heat: 0.63 J/gK
Heat of fusion: 8.540 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 153.60 kJ/mol
Thermal conductivity: 2.00 W/cmK
Atomic radius: 2.23 Å
Ionic radius: 1.00 Å (+2)
Covalent radius: 1.74 Å
Atomic volume: 25.9 cm³/mol
Density (293 K): 1.55 g/cm³
Crystal structure: cubic face centered
cubic face centered

Isotopes

NuclideAbundance [%]MassSpinHalflifeDecay modeDecay tree
40Ca 96.97 39.9626 0 -- --
41Ca 0 41 7/2 1.03E05y EC View
42Ca 0.64 41.9586 0 -- --
43Ca 0.145 42.9588 7/2 -- --
44Ca 2.06 43.9555 0 -- --
45Ca 0 44.956 7/2 162.7d β- View
46Ca 0.0033 45.9537 0 -- --
47Ca 0 46.954 7/2 4.536d β- View
48Ca 0.18 47.9525 0 -- --
49Ca 0 49 3/2 8.72m β- View

Other info

Name origin:Latin: calx, calcis (lime)
Description:Fairly hard, silvery-white metal. Fifth most abundant element in the earth's crust (41,500 ppm). Occurs only in compounds.
Discovered by:Sir Humphrey Davy
Year:1808
Place:England
Sources:Obtained from minerals like chalk, limestone & marble. Pure metal is produced by replacing the calcium in lime (calcium carbonate, CaCO3) with aluminium in hot, low pressure retorts.
Use(s):Used by many forms of life to make shells and bones. Virtually no use for the pure metal, however two of its compounds are, lime (CaO) and gypsum (CaSO4), are in great demand by a number of industries.