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Chlorine

Non-Metalgaseous
Symbol: Cl
Atomic number: 17
Atomic mass: 35.4527
Group: Halogen
CAS-number: 7782-50-5

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Physical data
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Physical data

Electronic dataThermal dataSteric data
Shells: 2, 8, 7
Orbitals: [Ne] 3s2 3p5
Electronegativity: 3.0, 2.8
1. Ionization potential: 12.9676 eV
2. Ionization potential: 23.81 eV
3. Ionization potential: 39.611 eV
Oxidation states: 7, 5, 3, 1, -1
Electrical conductivity: --
Melting point: -100.98 °C
Boiling point: -34.6 °C
Specific heat: 0.48 J/gK
Heat of fusion: 3.203 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 10.20 kJ/mol
Thermal conductivity: 0.000089 W/cmK
Atomic radius: 0.97 Å
Ionic radius: 1.81 Å (-1)
Covalent radius: 0.99 Å
Atomic volume: 16.9 cm³/mol
Density (293 K): 0.003214 g/cm³
Crystal structure: orthorhombic
orthorhombic

Isotopes

NuclideAbundance [%]MassSpinHalflifeDecay modeDecay tree
35Cl 75.53 34.9689 3/2 -- --
36Cl 0 35.9797 2 3.01E05y β-, EC, β+ View
37Cl 24.47 36.9659 3/2 -- --
38Cl 0 38 2 37.2m β- View

Other info

Name origin:Greek: chlôros (greenish yellow)
Description:Greenish-yellow, disagreeable gas. Never found in free form in nature.
Discovered by:Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Year:1774
Place:Sweden
Sources:Salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) is its most common compound. Commercial quantities are produced by electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride (seawater or brine from salt mines).
Use(s):Used in water purification, bleaches, acids and many, many other compounds such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFC).