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Phosphorus

Non-Metalsolid
Symbol: P
Atomic number: 15
Atomic mass: 30.973762
Group: Non-Metal
CAS-number: 7723-14-0

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Physical data
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Physical data

Electronic dataThermal dataSteric data
Shells: 2, 8, 5
Orbitals: [Ne] 3s2 3p3
Electronegativity: 2.1, 2.1
1. Ionization potential: 10.4867 eV
2. Ionization potential: 19.725 eV
3. Ionization potential: 30.18 eV
Oxidation states: 5, 3, -3
Electrical conductivity: 1.0e-17 10^6
Melting point: 44.1 °C
Boiling point: 277 °C
Specific heat: 0.77 J/gK
Heat of fusion: 0.657 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 12.129 kJ/mol
Thermal conductivity: 0.00235 W/cmK
Atomic radius: 1.23 Å
Ionic radius: 0.17 Å (+5)
Covalent radius: 1.06 Å
Atomic volume: 17.0 cm³/mol
Density (293 K): 1.82 g/cm³
Crystal structure: monoclinic
monoclinic

Isotopes

NuclideAbundance [%]MassSpinHalflifeDecay modeDecay tree
31P 100 30.9737620 1/2 -- --
32P 0 31.9739 1 14.28d β- View
33P 0 32.9717 1/2 24.3d β- View

Other info

Name origin:Greek: phosphoros, (bringer of light)
Description:Soft white waxy phosphorescent solid, brownish-red powder or black solid.
Discovered by:Hennig Brand
Year:1669
Place:Germany
Sources:Found most often in phosphate rock. Pure phosphorus is obtained by heating a mixture of phosphate rock, coke, and silica to about 1450 °C.
Use(s):Used in the production of fertilizers and detergents. Some is used in fireworks, safety matches and incendiary weapons. Also, there are applications for its compounds which glow in the dark.