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Silicon

Metalloidsolid
Symbol: Si
Atomic number: 14
Atomic mass: 28.0855
Group: Non-Metal
CAS-number: 7440-21-3

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Physical data
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Physical data

Electronic dataThermal dataSteric data
Shells: 2, 8, 4
Orbitals: [Ne] 3s2 3p2
Electronegativity: 1.8, 1.7
1. Ionization potential: 8.1517 eV
2. Ionization potential: 16.345 eV
3. Ionization potential: 33.492 eV
Oxidation states: 4, -4
Electrical conductivity: 2.52e-12 10^6
Melting point: 1410 °C
Boiling point: 3265 °C
Specific heat: 0.71 J/gK
Heat of fusion: 50.550 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 384.220 kJ/mol
Thermal conductivity: 1.48 W/cmK
Atomic radius: 1.46 Å
Ionic radius: 0.26 Å (+4)
Covalent radius: 1.11 Å
Atomic volume: 12.1 cm³/mol
Density (293 K): 2.33 g/cm³
Crystal structure: cubic face centered
cubic face centered

Isotopes

NuclideAbundance [%]MassSpinHalflifeDecay modeDecay tree
28Si 92.21 27.9769 0 -- --
29Si 4.7 28.9765 1/2 -- --
30Si 3.09 29.9738 0 -- --
31Si 0 30.9753 3/2 2.62h β- View
32Si 0 31.974 0 1.0E02y β- View

Other info

Name origin:Latin: silex, silicus (flint)
Description:Amorphous form is brown powder; crystalline form has gray metallic appearance. Seventh most abundant element in the universe. Second most plentiful element in the earths crust.
Discovered by:Jöns Berzelius
Year:1824
Place:Sweden
Sources:It makes up a major portion of clay, granite, quartz (SiO2), and sand. Commercial production depends on a reaction between sand (SiO2) and carbon at a temperature of around 2200 °C.
Use(s):It is used in the production of glass as silicon dioxide (SiO2). Silicon carbide (SiC) is one of the hardest substances known and used in polishing. Also the crystalline form is used in semiconductors.